Treatment guidelines for pneumonia

Pneumonia Management and Prevention Guidelines CD

Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia. An Official Clinical Practice Guideline. The Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Thoracic Society developed these consensus guidelines. The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Ag Knowledge of local bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles is the key for effective pharmacologic selection and treatment of pneumonia Treatment for pneumonia involves curing the infection and preventing complications. People who have community-acquired pneumonia usually can be treated at home with medication. Although most symptoms ease in a few days or weeks, the feeling of tiredness can persist for a month or more

Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) IDSA and ATS Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia, 2019 PIDS and IDSA Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age, 2011 [52 pages Abstract. Background: This document provides evidence-based clinical practice guidelines on the management of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Methods: A multidisciplinary panel conducted pragmatic systematic reviews of the relevant research and applied Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation methodology for clinical recommendations Treatment for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia you have, how sick you are feeling, your age, and whether you have other health conditions. The goals of treatment are to cure the infection and prevent complications. It is important to follow your treatment plan carefully until you are fully recovered Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired Pneumonia An Official Clinical Practice Guideline of the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America Joshua P. Metlay*, Grant W. Waterer*, Ann C. Long, Antonio Anzueto, Jan Brozek, Kristina Crothers, Laura A. Cooley HAP/VAP: Patients who develop pneumonia within the first 5 days of hospitalization should be treated using the CAP guideline while those who develop pneumonia on day 6+ should be treated as HAP (see NM HAP/VAP guideline)

The guidelines recommend different treatment regimens for patients with CAP depending on the treatment location (inpatient or outpatient), whether the pneumonia is classified as severe according to the criteria in TABLE 1, and whether the patient has comorbidities or any risk factors for drug-resistant pathogens Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Updated Recommendations from the ATS and IDSA [Practice Guidelines] 11/01/2016 Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: Diagnosis and Managemen CLINICAL ACTIONS: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), by definition, is pneumonia acquired outside a hospital. A joint guideline (2019) from the American Thoracic Society/ IDSA addresses diagnosis, management and follow-up. The focus of this document is on non-immunocompromised individuals (e.g., those without inherited or acquired immune deficiency or drug-induced neutropenia, those actively. these guidelines address and those discussed in the re-cently published guidelines for health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Pneumonia in nonambulatory residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities epidemiologically mirrors hospital-acquired pneumonia and should be treated according to the HCAP guidelines

Consensus guidelines from ATS, 8 Infectious Diseases Society of America, 9 and Canadian Guidelines for the Initial Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia 28 (Figure 1 6) recommend initial.. HCAP, as a distinct clinical entity warranting unique antibiotic treatment, was incorporated into the 2005 ATS/IDSA guidelines for management of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia . HCAP was defined for those patients who had any one of several potential risk factors for antibiotic-resistant pathogens, including residence in. Because COVID-19 pneumonia is caused by a virus, antibiotics are ineffective unless there is a bacterial co-infection. Inappropriate antibiotic use may reduce their availability, and indiscriminate use may lead to Clostridioides difficileinfection and antimicrobial resistance. When to start antibiotics 3.2

These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with.  Patientswith empyema, infected pleural effusions, and bacteremia secondary to pneumonia may require longer durations of therapy. Bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia should be treated for a minimum of 7-14 days. ID consult is recommended for patients with bacteremia The guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) The treatment of MRSA pneumonia is discussed in detail separately. (See Treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults, section on 'Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus'.) Although CA-MRSA is typically susceptible to more antibiotics than hospital-acquired MRSA, it appears to be more virulent

Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of Pneumoni

  1. TMP-SMX is the treatment of choice for PCP (AI). 70,71 Standard doses are summarized in the table; lower doses may also be effective, potentially with less toxicity, though randomized controlled data addressing this possibility are unavailable. The dose must be adjusted for abnormal renal function
  2. Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, ranking third both globally and in Taiwan. This guideline was prepared by the 2017 Guidelines Recommendations for Evidence-based Antimicrobial agents use in Taiwan (GREAT) working group, formed under the auspices of the Infectious Diseases Society of Taiwan (IDST)
  3. Figure 3. Guideline for the treatment of nursing home-acquired pneumonia. If renal insufficiency is present, dosage adjustments are necessary for agents which are excreted via the kidney. These agents include most penicillins, cephalosporins, and levofloxacin. Ceftriaxone does not require dosage adjustments for renal insufficiency until the creatinine clearance decreases to less than 20 cc per hour
  4. Community-acquired pneumonia is diagnosed by clinical features (e.g., cough, fever, pleuritic chest pain) and by lung imaging, usually an infiltrate seen on chest radiography. Initial evaluation.
  5. Pneumonia occurred in 30 per cent of patients with influenza infection. Risk factors for progression to pneumonia were an absolute lymphocyte count<200cells/mL and not receiving influenza-directed antiviral therapy. The absolute lymphocyte count was also an independent risk factor for death.21 Treatment should begin as soon as influenza pneumonia

Pneumonia - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clini

Diagnosis and Medical Management of Pneumococcal Disease CD

WHO guidelines for treatment of severe pneumonia. Correspondence cause acute lung injury, and we believe APW and GRB are investigators in the US National Taken together, we believe that these clinicians should carefully consider all Institutes of Health NHLBI ARDS Network. characteristics of the study population possible causes Guidelines for the Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents with HIV. The information in the brief version is excerpted directly from the full-text guidelines. The brief version is a compilation of the tables and boxed recommendations. Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia Treatment Adult Pneumonia Guideline HNEH CPG xxxxx 2 of 12 CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE Glossary AFB acid fast bacilli - e.g. Mycobacteria species such as tuberculosis BAL Broncho-alveolar lavage CAP community-acquired pneumonia CAPAC Community Acute Post-Acute Care (CAPAC)- hospital in the home care team that operates from several HNE Centres CI Contraindicatio

Antibiotics | Free Full-Text | Efficacy and Safety of

Diagnosis and Treatment of Adults with Community-acquired

Pneumonia Treatment and Recovery American Lung Associatio

When patients come to the ED and are diagnosed with pneumonia, it can be confusing to figure out which antibiotics to administer. Previous thinking separated community acquired pneumonia (CAP), hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP), and health-care associated pneumonia (HCAP). However, health-care associated pneumonia has been dropped from the newest treatment guidelines published in 2016 because. We welcome the publication by Lisa McNally and colleagues (April 28, p 1440),1 which provides vitally important information on the causes of pneumonia in a population of HIV-exposed children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, we believe that McNally and colleagues' conclusion that the WHO guidelines are inadequate for all children younger than 1 year, irrespective of HIV prevalence, is ill-founded

Most of the time, walking pneumonia is caused by an atypical bacteria called Mycoplasma pneumoniae, which can live and grow in the nose, throat, windpipe (trachea) and lungs (your respiratory tract). It can be treated with antibiotics. Scientists call walking pneumonia caused by mycoplasma atypical because of the unique features of the. Treatment decisions should be based on the clinical likelihood of pneumonia, not necessarily on the detection of organisms. Multiple Organism Detection: Patients may have more than one organism detected in their sputum or BAL. In the validation study of the pneumonia panel, 38% of 413 positive BAL specimens and 56% of 602 positiv Abstract: Published guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have informed management and treatment recommendations for 25 years. Since inception, CAP guidelines have been developed for nearly every region of world, in part owing to improved mortality, clinical outcomes, and costs associated with implementation of guideline based care

The case illustrates the challenges in diagnosing necrotizing pneumonia and the preferred treatment methods. Case Presentation. History of Present Illness. The patient is a 51-year old woman who presents with right upper lobe pneumonia and a failed outpatient regimen of levofloxacin Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is defined as pneumonia occurring 48 hours or greater after admission and excludes any infection that may be incubating at the time of admission. The following guidelines are intended for the empiric management of HAP in immunocompetent adults without ventilator-associated pneumonia. Therapy should be tailored. The purpose of this document is to guide the appropriate treatment of adult patients presenting with pneumonia. Three pathways with different empiric treatment regimens based on risk of infection with multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens (including MRSA, Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter spp., organisms not susceptible to beta-lactam

American Thoracic Society Document

Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), or pneumonia acquired outside the hospital in patients with healthcare-associated risk factors, is no longer distinguished in the guidelines. We recommended that most patients admitted for pneumonia who have had recent contact with the healthcare system (i.e., within 90 days, dialysis) be treated for CAP For pneumonia, treatment clears local sites of infection along with any associated sites of systemic infection. For laryngitis, early clinical detection and documentation by fiberoptic or indirect laryngoscopy demonstrates localization of lesions and assessment of airway patency, permits acquisition of samples for culture, and enables rapid.

The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2011;53:e25-e76. These are guidelines only and not intended to replace clinical judgment Many regions have guidelines for evaluation and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This usually includes a maximum time from door to antibiotic administration of four hours or less. Failure to abide by these time parameters may be associated with poor outcome. When in doubt, administer the first antibiotic dose

risk for pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens (e.g. MRSA and Pseudomonas aeruginosa).4 However, since the publication of these guidelines, there is a growing body of evidence that shows that most patients defined as having HCAP, by its original definition, are less likely to have pneumonia caused by drug-resistant pathogens Treatment of hospital-acquired pneumonia with linezolid or vancomycin: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2013; 3:e003912. Luther MK, Timbrook TT, Caffrey AR, et al. Vancomycin Plus Piperacillin-Tazobactam and Acute Kidney Injury in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Crit Care Med 2018; 46:12 Pneumonia can be defined clinically as the presence of fever, cough and tachypnoea at rest (and retractions in younger children) when clinical wheezing syndromes have been ruled out. Complicated pneumonia occurs when there is a complication such as parapneumonic effusion, empyema, lung abscess, or necrotising pneumonia Treatment is the biggest difference between bacterial and viral pneumonia. Bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotic therapy, while viral pneumonia will usually get better on its own

Updated Clinical Practice Guidelines for Community

  1. The revised guidelines present two major changes to existing guidelines: (A) there are now just 2 categories of pneumonia instead of 3 (pneumonia which is treated at home with oral amoxicillin and severe pneumonia which requires injectable antibiotics) and (B) oral amoxicillin replaces oral cotrimoxazole as first line treatment.
  2. Guidance. We withdrew this guideline during the COVID pandemic, and are reviewing the recommendations. For guidance on managing COVID-19 pneumonia, and identifying and treating bacterial pneumonia secondary to COVID-19 follow recommendations in our COVID-19 rapid guideline on managing COVID-19
  3. The IDSA CAP guidelines are presented here. These guidelines have been updated after almost ten years by the IDSA (Infectious disease society of America) and ATS (American thoracic Society of America). The IDSA CAP Guidelines enable physicians to appropriately diagnose and effectively treat patients with community-acquired pneumonia

Pneumonia - American Family Physicia

Pneumonia is a potential complication of COVID-19. In very severe cases, COVID-19 pneumonia can lead to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a progressive type of respiratory failure The most recent European guidelines and task force reports on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were published almost 10 years ago. Since then, further randomised clinical trials of HAP and VAP have been conducted and new information has become available. Studies of epidemiology, diagnosis, empiric treatment, response to treatment, new antibiotics or. Guideline-concordant therapy and reduced mortality and length of stay in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: playing by the rules. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Sep 14. 169 (16):1525-31. [Medline. Pneumonia with no signs of serious illness Children under 2 months . Admit the child for inpatient care and treat for severe pneumonia. Children from 2 months to 5 years . Treat as outpatient, except infants. amoxicillin PO: 30 mg/kg 3 times daily for 5 days Follow-up in 48 to 72 hours or sooner if the child's condition deteriorates Mild pneumonia can usually be treated at home with rest, antibiotics (if it's likely be caused by a bacterial infection) and by drinking plenty of fluids. More severe cases may need hospital treatment. Unless a healthcare professional tells you otherwise, you should always finish taking a prescribed course of antibiotics, even if you feel better

Pulmonary Perspective Cystic Fibrosis Pulmonary Guidelines Treatment of Pulmonary Exacerbations Patrick A. Flume1, Peter J. Mogayzel, Jr.2, Karen A. Robinson3, Christopher H. Goss4, Randall L. Rosenblatt5, Robert J. Kuhn6, Bruce C. Marshall7, and the Clinical Practice Guidelines for Pulmonary Therapies Committee* 1Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, Medical University of South Carolina. In accordance with the recommendations of, amongst others, the Surviving Sepsis Campaign and the recently published European treatment guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), in the event of a patient with such infections, empirical antibiotic treatment must be appropriate and administered as early as possible. The aim of this manuscript is. The pneumonia triad includes community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), nosocomial pneumonia and pneumonia in the immunosuppressed host. The triad allows for clinical decisions regarding initial assessment of severity, selection of treatment setting, extent of diagnostic testing and empiric antimicrobial treatment Patients with aspiration pneumonitis and aspiration pneumonia should be tested for an underlying swallowing disorder. Aspiration pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics; treatment of aspiration pneumonitis is primarily supportive. Secondary prevention of aspiration using various measures is a key component of care for affected patients

Guidelines for Prevention of Nosocomial Pneumonia

A summary of the initial management of patients admitted to hospital with suspected community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is presented in fig 8. Tables 4 and 5, respectively, summarise (1) the relevant microbiological investigations and (2) empirical antibiotic choices recommended in patients with CAP. Figure 8 Hospital management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the first 4 h Guideline: Oral Pharmacologic Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Clinical Practice Guideline from the American College of Physicians (2017) Full text. Evidence Review: Diabetes Medications as Monotherapy or Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (2016 New guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia. November 13, 2020. Jane M. Carnazzo, MD. Recommendations on the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia. According to Mark H Sawyer, MD, and professor of clinical pediatrics at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and Rady Children's Hospital in San Diego.

World’s first clinical guidelines for chronic fungal lung

The Chinese National Health Commission has published Chinese Clinical Guidance for COVID-19 Pneumonia Diagnosis and Treatment.The document, in its 7th version and translated by the Chinese Society of Cardiology, reflects deeper understanding of the clinical manifestations and pathological features of the disease and the accumulation of experience in diagnosis and treatment Summary. Pneumonia is a respiratory infection characterized by inflammation of the alveolar space and/or the interstitial tissue of the lungs.In industrialized nations, it is the leading infectious cause of death.Pneumonia is most commonly transmitted via aspiration of airborne pathogens (primarily bacteria, but also viruses and fungi) but may also result from the aspiration of stomach contents

The presence of pneumonia may cause fever in infants. Patients who develop shortness of breath may need respiratory support in the form of an oxygen mask or full mechanical ventilation, where a machine breathes for the patient. In this situation, hospitalization may be part of the treatment for aspiration pneumonia because the patient needs to be monitored Pneumonia is a general term in widespread use, defined as infection within the lung. It is due to material, usually purulent, filling the alveoli. Pneumonia is a form of acute respiratory infection that is most commonly caused by viruses or bacteria. It can cause mild to life-threatening illness in people of all ages, however it is the single. Organising pneumonia is defined pathologically by the presence in the distal air spaces of buds of granulation tissue progressing from fibrin exudates to loose collagen containing fibroblasts (fig1).1 ,2 The lesions occur predominantly within the alveolar spaces but are often associated with buds of granulation tissue occupying the bronchiolar lumen (bronchiolitis obliterans) [Guideline] Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, Bridges C, Hajjeh R. Guidelines for preventing health-care--associated pneumonia, 2003: recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control.

Guideline for the Treatment of Community-Acquired

Clinical Guidelines Diagnosis and treatment manual for curative programmes in hospitals and dispensaries | | download | Z-Library. Download books for free. Find book What is the treatment for suspected mycoplasma pneumonia in an adolescent? Caleb is an adult with an upper respiratory infection URI. Treatment for his URI would include: Rose is a 3-year-old patient with an upper respiratory infection URI. Treatment for her URI would include: Patients who should be cautious about using decongestants for.

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Pneumonia—IDSA Guidelines* Jack M. Bernstein, MD The Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has published guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Although Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common etiologic agent, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila are also importan macroaspiration, treatment with a macrolide or doxycycline should suffice to cover pneumococci, Mycoplasma pneumonia, and Chlamydia pneumonia (the most likely pathogens in this setting) - For the present, macrolides remain effective for patients with mild to moderately severe CAP on the basis of their pneumonia-specific severity of illness score 1. Asadi L et al. Guideline adherence and macrolides reduced mortality in outpatients with pneumonia. Respiratory Medicine (2012) 106, 451-458 2. Chalmers JD et al. Increasing outpatient treatment of mild community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 858-864. 3. Department of Health. Antimicrobial.

Guidelines on the treatment of pneumonia and UTI scored reasonably well with respect to scope and purpose definitions and the clarity of presentation of the final recommendations. All other domains were scored dismally low, with a pooled score below 50% for all domains in pneumonia and most domains in UTI. These domains refer to the core. This guideline applies to those patients formerly labeled with HCAP (Health Care Associated Pneumonia) . HCAP is no longer consider ed a helpful category to determine antibiotic treatment. • Anti -pseudomonal rx with anti -MRSA rx is excessively broad therapy for most pneumonia patients who are presenting from home or nursing home hours and no more than one pneumonia associated instability (per IDSA guidelines), but with a 5-day minimum. The control arm's treatment duration was determined by physicians. Outcomes were clinical success rates (resolution or improvement of signs and symptoms related to pneumonia without further antibiotic therapy) and CA Treatment of suspected bacterial pneumonia is based on the presumptive cause and the clinical appearance of the child. The mainstay of drug therapy for bacterial pneumonia is antibiotic treatment. The choice of agent is based on the severity of the patient's illness, host factors (eg, comorbidity, age), and the presumed causative agent

Empiric treatment options for patients with MRSA include vancomycin or linezolid; options for patients with P aeruginosa include piperacillin-tazobactam, cefepime, ceftazidime, aztreonam, meropenem, or imipenem. Recommendations for Anaerobic Coverage for Suspected Aspiration Pneumonia CAP Guidelines INTRODUCTION Pneumonia is the third leading cause of morbidity (2001) and mortality (1998) in Filipinos based on the Philippine Health Statistics from the Department of Health. These clinical practice guidelines on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), specifi c only for the empiric therapy o Treatment is now based on severity of the pneumonia rather than the location of the admitted patient. Prior guidelines differentiated antibiotic recommendations based on patient triage to the floor or the intensive care unit. In the new guidelines, treatment recommendations are based on the severity of the pneumonia, based on a list of criteria: 3 The IDSA/ATS guidelines list a separate set of major and minor criteria to defi ne se-vere pneumonia to determine which patients with suspected CAP merit intensive care.1 At least 1 of the major criteria or at least 3 of the minor criteria are required for the diagnosis of severe pneumonia (Table 3). The Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Re

Treatment of varicella pneumonia includes respiratory isolation until skin lesions heal, supportive care, administration of antiviral agents, and active and passive immunization. For treatment of documented varicella pneumonia in patients who are immunocompromised, acyclovir (10 mg/kg IV q8h for 7 d) has been shown to be effective Pneumonia is a leading cause of death worldwide, ranking third both globally and in Taiwan, in 2017. 1 Numerous guidelines have been published by various societies in many countries for the treatment of pneumonia, including the United Kingdom,2, 3 United States,4, 5 China, 6 India, 7 South Africa 8 and Europe.9, 10 Development of local.

treatment. This guideline applies to those patients formally labeled with HCAP. Anti-pseudomonal and anti-MRSA coverage is unnecessarily broad for the majority of patients. o Treatment leads to poorer outcomes and contributes to drug resistance Purpose of this guideline: Identify patients with increased risk of drug-resistant pneumonia by ris Guidelines on the Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults. CID 2007; 44 (Suppl 2): S27-72. Philippine Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Diagnosis, Empiric Management, and Prevention of Community- acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Immunocompetent Adults 2004 Update. Simonetti A, et al. Timing of antibiotic administratio Since the last update of guidelines approximately 10 years ago for managing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), new research data and treatment options for managing these conditions have emerged. Several European medical societies convened a task force to update the guidelines, and their recommendations were reported recently in the European Respiratory. Torres et al 2015 randomized 120 patients with severe pneumonia and C-reactive protein >150 mg/L to placebo vs. methylprednisolone 0.5 mg/kg Q12hr for five days. The primary outcome was treatment failure, a composite including intubation, shock, death, and radiologic progression PulmCrit- Commentary on the new pneumonia guidelines using GIFs & some mini-rants. October 19, 2019 by Josh Farkas 8 Comments. So, the new IDSA guidelines for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are here. This post will walk us through the guidelines, focusing primarily on issues that relate to critically ill patients

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Indications for primary prophylaxis in HIV-positive adults or adolescents who do not have symptoms or signs of PCP include: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institutes of Health; HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in adults and adolescents with HIV 1. PNEUMONIA : Current Management Guidelines. 2. • Pneumonia is an important clinical condition which is commonly confronted both by a pulmonologist as well as a general practitioner. • Despite being the cause of significant morbidity and mortality, pneumonia is often misdiagnosed, mistreated, and underestimated. 3 Treatment for Pneumonia in Elderly People If a doctor suspects pneumonia, they will likely order blood tests, as well as a CT scan or chest x-ray to confirm the diagnosis. Whether the disease is viral or bacterial, pneumonia is treated with rest, nutritious food, and lots of fluids, as well as medication to treat bothersome symptoms like a. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second most common cause of hospitalization in the United States, with over 1.5 million unique hospitalizations annually. 1 CAP is also the most common infectious cause of death in US adults. 2 The 2019 CAP guideline from the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) provides recommendations on the diagnosis.